Probing the anisotropic expansion from supernovae and GRBs in a model-independent way

Probing the anisotropic expansion from supernovae and GRBs in a model-independent way

Probing the anisotropic expansion from supernovae and GRBs in a model-independent way

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Probing the anisotropic expansion from supernovae and GRBs in a model-independent way   ABSTRACT   In this paper, we study the anisotropic expansion of the universe using type Ia supernovae Union 2.1 sample and 116 long gamma-ray bursts. The luminosity distance is expanded with model-independent cosmographic parameters as a function of z/ (1 + z ) directly. Thus the results are independent of cosmology model. We find a dipolar anisotropy in the direction ( l = 309 . 2 ◦ ± 15 . 8 ◦ , b = − 8 . 6 ◦ ± 10 . 5 ◦ ) in galactic coordinates with a significant evidence 97 . 29% (more than 2 σ ). The magnitude is (1 . 37 ± 0 . 57) × 10 − 3 for the dipole, and (2 . 6 ± 2 . 1) × 10 − 4 for the monopole, respectively. This dipolar anisotropy is more significant at low redshift from the redshift tomography analysis. We also test whether this preferred direction is caused by bulk flow motion or dark energy dipolar scalar perturbat ...

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